CBD GLOSSARY

5-HT1A - The Serotonin receptor that binds the neurotransmitter Serotonin. CBD is able to bind to the Serotonin receptor.

2-Archidonylglycerol (2-AG) - The most abundant Endocannabinoid in the human body, prevalent in the Central Nervous System (CNS). Due to its high prevalence in peripheral immune cells, it seems to have high anti-inflammatory properties. 2-AG is a neurotransmitter, meaning it is important in signalling in the body.

Activate - In biochemical signalling terms, activation refers to the successful binding of a substance (such as CBD) to the receptor site of a receptor (such as the Serotonin receptor, 5-HT1A). Activation following successful binding leads to the continuation of signalling from one cell/synapse to another, allowing for the completion in messaging in the body.

Affinity - Affinity refers to the strength of a substance to bind to a receptor site. THC has a high affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors. CBD has a low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors.

Anandamide - Also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA). Anandamide is the second most prevalent Endocannabinoid in the human body. Anandamide also has the ability to make or break short-term connections between nerve cells that directly affect memory. It is a neurotransmitter, meaning it is important in signalling in the body.

Angiosperms - Flowering plants. The Cannabis plant is an example of an Angiosperm. The flowering plant produces male offspring, Hemp, which is characterised by a tall appearance with skinny leaves and buds low in THC. Whereas the female offspring, Marijuana is a short, broad plant with dense leaves that are rich in THC.

Axon - The fibre of a neurone which conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body.

Cannabinoids - Compounds that interact with the Endocannabinoid system in vertebrates and invertebrates. CBD and THC the most well known cannabinoids. There are currently 113 known Cannabinoids and there are three types of Cannabinoids: i) Endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body), ii) Phytocannabinoids (produced by the Cannabis plant) and iii) Synthetic Cannabinoids Cannabinoids developed chemically within a laboratory setting.

Cannabis - a plant, from which chemicals called Cannabinoids are made. The two most well known varieties of the Cannabis plant include Hemp and Marijuana. Two species of the Cannabis plant are recognised: Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. Some argue that Cannabis is a single species, while others describe four ‘strains’: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis ruderalis, Cannabis afghanica and Cannabis indica.

Cannabis Oil - Broadly refers to Oil containing vegetative matter from the Cannabis plant. We do not sell Cannabis Oil at the Lemon Tree CBD. Instead, we sell CBD (Cannabidiol) products, with one of them being CBD Oil. The CBD products we sell contain less than 0.2% THC, with 3rd party (ADACT) laboratory testing conducted to ensure the products meet requirements. The 0.2% THC composition guideline has been set by the Home Office.

Cannabis sativa - Considered a species of the Cannabis plant. Cannabis sativa is an angiosperm and also considered a herb. All CBD products sold at the Lemon Tree CBD contain CBD extracted from Cannabis sativa plants cultivated in Colorado, USA.

CBD receptors - There are two main CBD receptors in the Endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptors located mainly in the CNS (spinal cord and brain) and CB2 receptors, located mainly in immune cells and peripheral tissue. The receptor sites in the Endocannabinoid System allow cannabinoids, such as CBD, to directly and indirectly impact processes.

CBD (Cannabidiol) - CBD is a Cannabinoid that comes from the Cannabis plant (therefore, CBD is a Phytocannabinoid). CBD, unlike other Cannabinoids, is non-psychoactive, meaning it does not create a ‘high’. Instead, CBD is believed to indirectly influence the Endocannabinoid system and promote the use of endogenous Cannabinoids (Endocannabinoids). CBD can be integrated into a number of products. At the Lemon Tree CBD, we integrate the CBD with a MCT carrier Oil in order to provide a supplement that promotes wellness.

Cell membrane - Membrane bounding the surface of all living cells. It regulates the entry and exit of substances through the cell. Cannabinoid receptors (CB1 & CB2) are found embedded in the cell membrane of certain cells and neurones/synapses.

Chemotaxis - An immune response to injury or damage and causes immune cells to migrate to the site of damage. CBD interacts with the Endocannabinoid system to turn off chemotaxis, preventing too many cells to migrate to the site of damage, acting as an anti-inflammatory supplement.

CNS (Central Nervous System) - Part of the nervous system that serves as a coordinating function. In vertebrates, the CNS consists of the brain and the spinal cord. CB1 receptors of the Endocannabinoid system are abundant in the CNS, mainly localised in the brain.

Dendrites - The fibre of a neurone that conducts nerve impulses towards the cell body.

Dopamine - Acts as a hormone and a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Dopamine transfers signals in-between nerve cells of the brain. A deficiency of dopamine in the forebrain is an underlying cause of Parkinson’s disease.

Endocannabinoids - Cannabinoids produced naturally in the body. The two best known Endocannabinoids are Anandamide and 2-Archidonylglycerol (2-AG) .

Endocannabinoid deficiencies - Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CED) is a medical theory that proposes that a deficiency of endocannabinoids is the underlying pathophysiological syndromes (including migraines, fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome). Endocannabinoid deficiencies have been linked with Endocanninoid tone, which refers to the levels of Endocannabinoids in the body.

Endocannabinoids system - A system found in vertebrates and invertebrates involved in messaging through signalling. The Endocannabinoid system is made up of: i) Endocannabinoids, ii) Cannabinoids receptors (CB1 & CB2) and iii) Endocannabinoid enzymes.

Endocannabinoid tone - Endocannabinoid tone was first proposed in 2001 and refers to the levels of Endocannabinoids (the natural Cannabinoids produced in the body, mainly 2-AG and Anandamide). It is believed that a poor Endocannabinoid tone is associated with Endocannabinoid deficiencies such as pathophysiological syndromes.

Entourage effect - The Entourage effect describes the coming together of multiple Cannabinoids to increase the potential of the Endocannabinoid system. Research has shown that CBD on its own has the ability to activate the Endocannabinoid system. But, the addition of other Cannabinoids, such as CBG, CBDV, CBDVA, CBDA, CBGA, CBN, CBC and CBCA along with CBD increase the probability of Endocannabinoid system activation and the discussed benefits the system can provide.

Enzymes - A large and diverse group of proteins that function as catalysts in the majority of biochemical reactions in the body. Enzymes speed up the rate of reactions in the body. The enzymes in the Endocannabinoid system are responsible for creating and breaking down various cannabinoids in an attempt to optimise the performance of the Endocannabinoid System.

Epidiolex/Epidyolex - A drug developed to treat two rate forms of Epilepsy. Epidiolex contains CBD and is a liquid-based drug. Epidiolex is a prescription medicine that is used to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome in patients 2 years of age and older.

G protein-coupled receptors - Structures found on the surface of cells, usually embedded within the cell membrane. CB1 and CB2 receptors are examples of G protein-coupled receptors and are vital in the functioning of the Endocannabinoid system.

GPR55 - Believed to be the ‘third’ Cannabinoid receptor behind CB1 and CB2. Scientists have proposed that inhibiting the overexpression of the GPR55 receptor could be a potential target for cancer therapy. Research suggests that the GPR55 is activated by the illegal cannabinoid THC.

Hemp - A variety of the Cannabis plant that contains less than 0.3% THC, the psychoactive component of the Cannabis plant. Hemp is believed to be brother (male) portion of the Cannabis plant and is grown with the intention of creating CBD-rich buds. The THC content of Hemp is low (usually less than 0.2%). The Hemp plant usually has skinny leaves that concentrate towards the top of the plant. The Hemp plant is taller and thinner than the Marijuana plant. Hemp is known to be one of the strongest natural fibres and is used in a varieties of other products, such as clothing and as an industrial textile.

Herb - Any plant with leaves, seeds, or flowers used for flavouring, food, medicine, or perfume. Herbs do not have a woody stem and die down to the ground after flowering.

Homeostasis - A Greek work; ‘homeo’ meaning similar and ‘stasis’ meaning stable. Homeostasis is the maintenance of the constancy of internal environment of the body. Homeostasis encompasses the brain, endocrine, and immune system, to name a few and refers to balance, stability and equilibrium within the entire body.

Immune system - Our immune system is essential for our survival. Without an immune system, our bodies would be open to attack from bacteria, viruses, parasites, and more. It is our immune system that keeps us healthy as we drift through a sea of pathogens. However, an overactive immune system can lead to internal issues.

Industrial Hemp - Industrial Hemp classifies Cannabis plants (such as Cannabis sativa. L) that are cultivated with CBD-rich buds with a low THC content. The CBD products on offer at the Lemon Tree CBD contain CBD from Cannabis sativa. L, grown in Colorado, USA.

Inflammation - Inflammation refers to the painful swelling and redness of tissue caused as a result of infection or tissue damage.

Marijuana - A variety of the Cannabis plant containing 0.3% THC or more. In contrast to Hemp, Marijuana is known to create a psychoactive effect (a ‘high’) when used. Marijuana is believed to be sister (female) portion of the Cannabis plant and is usually grown with the intention of creating THC-rich buds. The Marijuana is shorter and broader than the Hemp plant. THC and marijuana are classified as class-B illegal drugs.

MCT - MCT is an acronym for Medium Chain Triglycerides. MCT Oil is a supplement made from types of fat called Triglycerides. MCT compounds are smaller than the fats we have in our diet, those are LCTs, Long Chain Triglycerides. As MCT compounds are smaller it makes them easier to absorb into your bloodstream and also digest, which is great for ‘carrying’ CBD in your system.

Microdose - The administration of relatively low doses of supplements or drugs. The aim of Macrodosing is to achieve the positive effects of a supplement without the negative effects large quantities of the supplement could cause.

Neurone (Nerve cell) - The basic unit of the Nervous system, specialised for the generation and transport of electrical impulses. The Neurone is composed of Dendrites and Axons.

Neurotransmitters - Chemicals involved in cell signalling in the body. Neurotransmitters move from the Neurone (Nerve cell) in response to an electrical impulse. Neurotransmitters are released by the pre-synaptic neurone and interact with receptors on the dendrites of post-synaptic neurones, it is this process which transmits signals from cell to cell and is vital in the functioning of the Endocannabinoid system.

Novel foods - Foods which have not been widely consumed by people in the EU before May 1997. This means that the foods don’t have a ‘history of consumption’. Cannabis sativa. L is a novel food.

Phytocannabinoids - Cannabinoids produced and derived from Cannabis plants. The two best known Phytocannabinoids are the non-psychoactive CBD and the psychoactive THC.

Psychoactive - Psychoactive substances are substances that, when taken in or administered into one's system, affect mental processes, e.g. cognition or affect. Psychoactive substance create a ‘high’, CBD does not create a high.

Receptor - Protein to which complementary substances can bind to and stimulate further biochemical reactions in cell. There are two well known Cannabinoid receptors in the Endocannabinoid System; CB1 and CB2. Cannabinoids, including CBD, interact with CB1 and CB2 receptors to influence the Endocannabinoid System.

Receptor sites - Sites on the surface of Receptors that can bind with complementary-shaped substances, such as enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitter and others. It is the direct or indirect interaction of Cannabinoids with receptor sites of Cannabinoid receptors (notably CB1 & CB2) which influences the Endocannabinoid system in the body.

Sativex - A drug developed from the Cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa) to treat Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Sativex is an oral spray containing both CBD and THC.

Serotonin - Serotonin in the brain is thought to regulate anxiety, happiness, and mood. Low levels of the chemical have been associated with anxiety and depression.

Synapse - The point of communication between Neurones (nerve cells) and from Neurones to target cells. Chemical signals (via neurotransmitters) are transported across synapses; from the pre-synaptic neurone to the post-synaptic neurone. The transport of signals between synapses is the basis of signalling in the body. Cannabinoids play a role in cell signalling, binding to the membranes of both the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurone to modify neurotransmitter transport.

Synthetic Cannabinoids - Cannabinoids developed chemically within a laboratory setting. Generally, there are three types of Cannabinoids: Phytocannabinoids (produced naturally by the Cannabis plant), Endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body) and Synthetic Cannabinoids.

THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) - THC is a Cannabinoid that comes from the Cannabis plant (therefore, THC is a Phytocannabinoid). THC creates a psychoactive effect (a ‘high’) in the body, whereas CBD does not create a high. Marijuana plants are cultivated to produce buds with high levels of THC. THC is currently an illegal substance in the United Kingdom. THC and marijuana are classified as class-B illegal drugs. CBD is not a drug.

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